Software development is an expensive process, but manufacturers are able to spread out the costs of the development over the hundreds of thousands of software packages sold to consumers. Economies of scale help them to drive down costs per unit. For example JAVA attains the economies of scale by allocating its fixed costs of making latest versions to all of the existing customers who are already using their software. Likewise, car manufacturing companies achieve economies of scale by making large number of cars. When we produce large number of units then the per unit costs decrease when we go for increasing the number of units. It is one of the important technique which has been used by many well known and popular organisation throughout the world.
The correct answer would be option D, grant a patent to a firm, giving it the exclusive right to produce a product.
Governments often have to potential to influence whether firms are monopolies leading. The government could influence the monopoly by granting patent to it, and giving it the exclusive rights to produce a product.
Patent is basically given rights to an investor to produce, design, or invent a product or service for a period of time. Patent gives the owner, rights to produce, design, innovate, sell, and use the product or service without the fear of competition in that particular product or service.
So when government wants to make monopoly of a firm in the country, it grants a patent to that firm, giving it exclusive rights to produce that product. For example, in Pakistan, WAPDA is the electricity provider, who has the monopoly in the country and is backed by the government.
A condition precedent refers to an event i.e. needed prior something else would arise. It is an event that must arrise until its non-occurence would be excused prior performing under a contract treated to be due i.e. prior any type of contractual duty would be existed
So according to the given situation, it is a condition precedent