As part of its food safety
program, USDA has simplified food safety rules into clean, separate, chill and cook.
Following these core four practices for food safety helps to prevent bacteria and
to reduce one’s risk of foodborne illness. The rule emphasize on washing of hands
and surfaces often, separating food substances to avoid cross-contamination, cooking
to the safe internal temperature and proper refrigeration of food.
Has more offspring that have the ability to survive and reproduce themselves.
Evolution fitness can be defined as a characteristic or quality possessed by living organisms and determines their adaptability, as well as level of success in terms of reproduction i.e giving birth to offsprings.
Hence, if you say that a ground squirrel has greater evolutionary fitness than another ground squirrel in the same population, you mean that the animal has more offspring that have the ability to survive and reproduce themselves.
According to the law of conservation of matter, matter is never created or destroyed but it can change from one form to another. Most of the biomass in a food web gets converted at each trophic level and it no longer remains apart of the food web. Most of the biomass is released into the atmosphere in the form of heat and hence cannot be transferred to the other trophic level. Also, matter is used up by the organism itself and converted into different forms. Most of the matter might get accumulated in the soil when the organisms of a trophic level die.
The advantage is that the larger surface area allows for more material to be transported through the cell membrane. Hyphae, the body of fungi has a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes fungi extremely well adapted to absorbing nutrients from soil and other substrates through the membrane. The nutrients can also easily and rapidly reach any part of the cells interior.