In "To Kill a Mockingbird " Harper Lee introduces the setting of the Great Depression. There is an allusion to the K.K.K., and Jim Crow Laws. The book explores the issues that were brought upon us in it's set time and date, provide a prospective to you/us. It provides a prospective while telling a story at the same time.
In writing, especially when writing prose of a fictional character, an author uses a series of techniques that seek to engage a reader and interest him/her in not only the event that is taking place, but also the characters within the event and the idea being portrayed by the author. This is a what a story is, its a telling of an event, or series of events with the use of characters, settings and ideas. All stories have a structure, that a writer uses to reach his/her main goal. A climax in a story is the main event or the epitome circumstance after which things begin to become resolved. All stories build themselves up to this climax, this one central moment, through the use of a series of events that lead to the climax, and the name of this series of events is rising action (option B).