The fallacy is demonstrated as the error or flaw in reasoning that destructs the validity of a claim or argument. There are varied types of fallacies reflected in writing or employed by authors deliberately to create the desired effect(persuasion).
In the given statement, 'ad hominem' fallacy is exemplified as the original claim ('We need to take a strong stand against crime') is being avoided by proposing an attack on the character of the opposition ('our mayor is too busy tanning and going to concerts to address the problem'). Such fallacies are also described as the argumentative strategy in case of a lack of sufficient counterclaims. It intends to erode or undermine the validity of the actual claim. Thus, it exemplifies <u>'ad hominem'</u> fallacy.
The correct answer is Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll are the same person.
In his letter, Lanyon tells about that night where he went to visit Jekyll. Through a letter (which was not typical of him) Jekyll asks dr Lanyon to go to his home and follow specific instructions, which dr does.
There, he narrates everything that happened that night. How Hyde through experiments that went totally in the opposite direction of what Lanyon approved scientifically and morally, he ended up transforming himself into his friend Jekyll.
Lanyon swore, before seeing what was going to happen, that this would be under professional secrecy, that is why he can only tell about it when he dies or when Jekyll disappears. What he saw left him so disturbed that he eventually ends up getting sick and dying.
Given this information we can say that the correct answer is Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll are the same person.