Glycosidic bonds are covalent bonds that join monosaccharides or longer glucose chains to other monosaccharide or carbohydrates to formdisaccharides, oligosaccharides andpolysaccharides and are named according to the type of the atom present on the second carbohydrate to be linked. The bond is usually formed between the hemiacetal of the first carbohydrate and the functional group on the second molecule which could be Oxygen-, Nitrogen-Sulphur -, and Carbon -glycosidic bonds.
Examples of Polysaccharides are Cellulose Starch , Glycogen formed by the linkage of many long residue monosaccharides connected through glycosidic bonds.
Both glutamate C5H9NO4, an amino acid and aspartame C14H18N2O5, an artificial sweetener and dipeptide ester, are digested as protein-like substances; they are made up of the elements C, H, O, N, S. Unlike other naturally occurring saccharide sweeteners, aspartame is not a carbohydrate.
Proteins are structural support molecules comprised of long chains of amino acids joined via peptide (CONH) bonds; these are 20 specific units that are arranged into several macromolecules. Amino acids are absorbed through digestion and are incorporated into the body’s cells to make up organs muscles signal molecules and an alternative energy source.
Basic makeup: C, H, O, N, S; polar C, O double bonds and N-H bonding
Large chains of monomers form biological macromolecules which carry out many essential functions in the body these can include nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. These are organic molecules, meaning they're ringed or long-chain Carbons bonded to the elements oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P).
Similarly, the nucleic acids are comprised of smaller units called nucleotides and function as storage for the body’s genetic information. These monomers include ribonucleic acid (RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). They differ from other macromolecules since they don’t provide the body with energy. They exist solely to encode and protein synthesis. <em>Basic makeup: C, H, O, P; they contain phosphate group 5 carbon sugar does nitrogen bases which may contain single to double bond ring.
Carbohydrates function to supply energy and support molecules they consist of mainly sugars or starches in long chains and rings to form monosaccharide monomers. They include monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides which describes the type of bonding and the degree of complexity of the polymers. <em>Basic makeup: C, H, O -with many polar OH groups
Lipids function as energy storage and chemical messengers, these include fats, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds and steroids and waxes. However, lipids are comprised of fatty acids and glycerol; they do not contain a fixed set of monomers, and unlike the other biological macromolecules, they are not polymers. The arrangement of hydrophobic heads and hydrophobic fatty acid tails can give these non-polar macromolecules hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties<em>. Basic makeup: C, H, O; non polar- a triple condensation reaction produces the molecules from a triple hydroxyl (OH) alcohol bonded to three long-chain carboxylic acids.
Air sacs of birds are tiny bags or sacs of the trachea as an extra part or extension of the respiratory organ lungs in birds.
Air sacs increase the efficiency of the lungs by providing a larger surface area for the gas exchange. Air sacs are also helpful in absorbing the body heat of the birds which is not able to move out of the body due to adipose tissue. Air sacs help in eliminate body heat efficiently with the breathing process.
Membrane domains are regions of the plasma membrane that have a specific functional specialization. They arise from movement restriction of the components of the membrane. If we examine the detail of the structure of many transmembrane proteins, we see that they often possess three different domains, two hydrophilic and one hydrophobic.
Hydrophilic domain (formed by hydrophilic amino acids) at the N-terminal end projects to the external medium. The hydrophobic domain in the middle of the peptide chain (often only about 20-30 amino acids) is across the plasma membrane and a hydrophilic domain at the C-terminal end protrudes into the cytoplasm.
The transmembrane domain, because its amino acids have hydrophobic side chains, is "comfortable" in the hydrophobic layer of the plasma membrane.
<u>Since these transmembrane domains "anchor" the protein to the lipid bilayer, these proteins do not float freely and cannot be isolated without first dissolving the lipid bilayer with detergents.