First during protein synthesis, transcription occurs in the nucleus, followed by translation within ribosomes. Then, newly synthesized proteins enter endoplasmic reticulum where they undergo folding and modification. Next, within the golgi body, the proteins are tagged; after,they are finally parceled into lysosomes. Finally, they can be exported out of the cell to fulfill various functions.
The endoplasmic reticulum is a membrane system within the cytoplasm that extends from the outer nuclear membrane. Apart from increasing the surface area within the cell, this continuous system also carries out protein folding, synthesis and transport. In the endoplasmic reticulum or ER, some sections called the smooth ER, do not contain ribosomes, and may contain lipids, enzymes, and other proteins. Other sections bound to ribosomes, are called the rough Er. As a protein destined for the endomembrane system is being synthesized by a ribosome, the first amino acids in the growing polypeptide chain act as a signal sequence. That signal sequence ensures that the ribosome binds to the outer membrane of the ER and that the protein enters the ER lumen. The proteins undergo major modifications and are packed into vesicles.
Golgi bodies are flat, disk-like membranous regions. Proteins traverse the organelle by first having their vesicles bind to the cis face or receiving end. Like a post office, the golgi complex, or golgi body recognizes specific signal sequences, targets and further modifies and packages these compounds into lysosomes for delivery to their final destination. Proteins here undergo peptide processing and glycosylation
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It would be B because the other 23 would be from the male to make a total of 46
Glycolysis uses 2 ATP and produce 4ATP. So the net gain is true.
Oxygen is used in the Electron Transport Chain as the final electron recipient from complex 4 cytochrome a₃.
Glycolysis is the process which is common in all forms of respiration where glucose is metabolized into pyruvate. This process is very essential to continue the next steps of different respiration. Glycolysis requires 2 molecules to process substrate level phosphorylation to convert glucose to glucose 6 phosphate and fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate. But it produces 4 ATPs. Thus net gain is 2ATP.
In ETC, the hydrogen carriers NADH and FADH gives off the hydrogen to reduce the complex 1 and 2 respectively and itself gets oxidized. Thus the electron given off is transferred between 4 complexes to finally give off to oxygen to form water.