Techniques for depicting terrain from directly above were developed for two primary reasons. First, the oblique view inherently hides some map features; a vertical view, by contrast, offers a view of all landscape features within the map frame. The vertical view also allows the map maker to position features appropriately in geographic space—thus providing concrete spatial information, rather than a more artistic visual representation.
In the vertical view, terrain is typically represented with contour lines. Contour lines drawn on a map connect points of equivalent elevation. Figure 6.4.1 demonstrates how contour lines relate to the landscape from which they are derived—note that the bottom image is a 2D rendering of what is presumed to be a regularly-shaped mountain feature.
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Answer: trasformation and convergant
It wasn't reunited and was split along the 38th parallel.