Isabella: 50-meter freestyle
- inadequate oxygenation over a short period of time
anaerobic cellular respiration
incomplete breakdown of glucose waste products: lactic acid
traps 2 molecules of ATP for each gram of glucose
Tyler: half marathon- adequate oxygenation of tissue over a long period of time
aerobic cellular respiration
complete breakdown of glucose
traps 36 molecules of ATP for each gram of glucose
waste products: H2O, CO2
overall: C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ≈38 ATP
In all eukaryotic cells mitochondria are small cellular organelles bound by membranes, these make most of the chemical energy required for powering the biochemical reactions within the cell. This chemical energy is stored within the molecule ATP which is produced. Respiration in the mitochondria utilizes oxygen for the production of ATP in the Krebs’ or Citric acid cycle via the oxidization of pyruvate( through the process of glycolysis in the cytoplasm).
Oxidative phosphorylation describes a process in which the NADH and FADH2 made in previous steps of respiration process give up electrons in the electron transport chain these are converted it to their previous forms, NADH+ and FAD. Electrons continue to move down the chain the energy they release is used in pumping protons out of the matrix of the mitochondria.
This forms a gradient where there is a differential in the number of protons on either side of the membrane the protons flow or re-enter the matrix through the enzyme ATP synthase, which makes the energy storage molecules of ATP from the reduction of ADP. At the end of the electron transport, three molecules of oxygen accept electrons and protons to form molecules of water...
Glycolysis: occurs in the cytoplasm 2 molecules of ATP are used to cleave glucose into 2 pyruvates, 4 ATP and 2 electron carrying NADH molecules. (2 ATP are utilized for a net ATP of 2)
The Citric acid or Kreb's cycle: in the mitochondrial matrix- 6 molecules of CO2 are produced by combining oxygen and the carbon within pyruvate, 2 ATP oxygen molecules, 8 NADH and 2 FADH2.
The electron transport chain, ETC: in the inner mitochondrial membrane, 34 ATP, electrons combine with H+ split from 10 NADH, 4 FADH2, renewing the number of electron acceptors and 3 oxygen; this forms 6 H2O, 10 NAD+, 4 FAD.
Within cells, aerobic respiration may not occur due to several factors:
- a lack of inorganic, final electron acceptors
-incomplete or lack of a complete electron transport system
-missing genes for enzymes within the Kreb's cycle
Thus, they utilize other means for the generation of energy in the form of ATP and to replenish NAD+, an oxidized form of NADH, the main electron carrier in glycolysis. Pyruvate is produced in the cytoplasm via glycolysis- it is also used as an electron acceptor in a process called fermentation.
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The nuclear imaging examination is done to accompany the blood as it transported to the kidneys in order to reveal whatsoever blockage and to assess the level of which the kidneys perform filtration. The case study does not pinpoint to the capability of the kidneys tubes and ducts.
In the CPT® Index view for Nuclear Medicine/Diagnostic/Vascular Flow leads us to code range 78701-78709. Since mainly vascular flow was undertaken, we can infer that code 78701 is the right code to report.