Leroy, a senior manager, has been preoccupied with relocating the marketing division of Clifford Inc. to its new office. As a re
sult, he is unable to monitor the work of his subordinates during this period. Therefore, he decides to give high ratings to all his subordinates in their performance appraisals, irrespective of their actual performance. In the given scenario, Leroy is most likely to commit a _____. A) severity errorB) leniency errorC) horns errorD) halo error
Leniency error is the kind of error that occurs when the person is too positive in making a judgment. Usually this judgment is passed on when in times of appraisals of an employee in which he is appraised regardless of his actual performance.
Therefore in the above example, the manager performs leniency error in terms of giving high rating to all employees regardless of the kind of performance they showed.
A company's chain of command refers to how a company is hierarchically structured, meaning what position has authority or decision power over another position within the company. The highest authority is always held by the board of directors ⇒ then the CEO ⇒ then CFO, COO, (CIO) ⇒ department managers ⇒ middle managers ⇒ lower managers or supervisors ⇒ common employees
In this case, Victor is a common employee at the bottom of the pyramid, and he has two problems:
D (Mia realized that Jason was being overpaid) relates to Equity Theory.
B (Offering range of rewards) relates to Expectancy Theory.
A (Identifying causes of dissatisfaction) relates to Two Factor Theory.
C (Offering trips) relates to The Porter-Lawler Model.
Equity Theory: Equity theory says that employees are motivated by the amount of fair treatment they are getting in the company.
For example: A employee would be satisfied, if he is paid equal to the other employee, but will be dissatisfied if the other is overpaid despite the fact that both have the same position and qualification.
Expectancy Theory: It suggests that employees are motivated by the value of the rewards, the more the value will the more they will be motivated to work.
For example: Employee knows the worth of their own effort, and the reward they will get against those efforts should be worth it.
Two Factor Theory: Suggested by Hezberg, there are factors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, he categorized them as, <em>Hygiene factors and Motivation factors. </em>So, it's necessary to identify them and fix them.
The porter - Lawler Model: It suggests that the motivation is caused by rewards.
For example: Company is offering high rewards which will increase the motivation of the employees.
Professional liability insurance protects businesses (an independent contractor is a one person business) against liability resulting from errors and omissions. It covers any harm caused to a customer as a result of professional service or advice. This type of policy generally covers negligence, copyright infringement, personal injury, etc.
Professional liability insurance is generally purchased by businesses that offer the following services:
Michael Harrington's philosophy made the most sense for Americans during the 1960s economy. He wrote a book exposing the truth behind Americans who are living in extreme poverty and migrants of the country that were living under the "ideal" American life. His book also changed the perspective of America's leader, John F. Kennedy.