**Answer:**

**Explanation:**

As we know that mass is the product of volume and density

so we will have

here we have

so we will have

so we will have

now let the position of Pluto is at origin so we have

**Answer:**

**Explanation:**

It is given that.

Initial velocity, .

Final velocity, .

Also, time taken during the process, .

So, average acceleration, a is given by:

Putting all the given values in above equation.

Hence, it is the required solution.

**Answer:**

a) I₁ = 11.2 Lux
, vertical direction
, b) I₂ = 1.44 Lux

**Explanation:**

a) A polarized is a system that absorbs light that is not polarized in the direction of its axis, therefore half of the non-polarized light must be absorbed

consequently the above the processed light has half of the incident intensity and the directional of the polarized

I₁ = I₀ / 2

I₁ = 22.4 / 2

I₁ = 11.2 Lux

is polarized in the vertical direction

b) The polarized light falls on a second polarizer, therefore it must comply with the law of Malus

I₂ = I₁ cos² θ

I₂ = 11.2 cos² 69

I₂ = 1.44 Lux

A=5m/s

F=15N

by the formula, F = m × a

15N = m × 5m/s

m =

By simplification(division),

m = 3

Thus, mass of the Encyclopedia will be 3kgs.

All the Best. :D