Reaction A has a high activation energy, whereas reacton B has a low activation energy. Which of the statements about reaction A
and reaction B are true? Reaction B is likely to occur at a faster rate than reaction A. Reaction A is more likely to occur at all than reaction B. Reaction B is more likely to occur at all than reaction A. Reaction A is likely to occur at a faster rate than reaction B.
Reaction B is more likely to occur at all than reaction A.
The activation energy in chemistry is the smallest amount of energy required to cause chemical or nuclear reaction in the reactants in chemical or nuclear systems. The activation energy is denoted by , and it is measured in Joules (J), KiloJoules (KJ) or Kilocalories per mole (Kcal/mol)
The activation energy can be thought of simply as the minimum amount of energy required to overcome a barrier that prevents a reaction from occurring, hence, from our question, if Reaction A has a high activation energy, it means that the barrier to be overcome before a reaction will occur is large, meaning that the reaction system is more stable and the reaction is less likely to occur than Reaction B which has a low activation energy, meaning that just a relatively small amount of energy, when applied to the reaction system, will initiate a reaction, making it more likely to occur than reaction A.
You should also note that catalysts are substances that are capable of reducing the activation energy of a system, but remains unchanged at the end of the system.
WrittenAnswer: Covalent bonds hold atoms together in molecules and polyatomic ions where as intermolecular forces hold molecules together in a liquid or solid. Intermolecular forces are generally much weaker than covalent bonds.
Explanation/Evidence: "In contrast to intramolecular forces, such as the <u>covalent bonds that hold atoms together in molecules and polyatomic ions</u>, <u>intermolecular forces hold molecules together in a liquid or solid.</u><u>Intermolecular forces are generally much weaker than covalent bonds."</u>
"The higher the spring constant, the stiffer the spring. The spring constant is not the same value for different elastic objects. For a given spring and other elastic objects, the extension is directly proportional to the force applied. For example, if the force is doubled, the extension doubles."
In order to determine the formal charge and number of lone pairs, it is imperative to draw the Lewis structure first. The steps in drawing the lone pairs are:
Get the total number of valence electrons by adding the number of valence electrons of each atom in the compound.
Determine the central atom.
Place the other atoms around the central atom and connect each to the central atom by a single bond. For every single bond, 2 electrons from the total valence electrons are shared.
Distribute the remaining valence electrons to the terminal atoms. Start by distributing to one terminal atom until the atom has an octet then move to the next terminal atom. If all terminal atoms have an octet, the remaining electrons will be placed in the central atom.
For thionyl chloride, the central atom is sulfur and the total number of valence electrons is:
Cl = 7 × 2 = 14
S = 6
O = 6
Total Valence Electrons = 14 + 6 + 6 = 26 electrons. Following the steps above, the resulting Lewis structure is shown in the attachment.
Once the Lewis structure is known, the number of lone pairs in the central atom can be known. For thionyl chloride, it can be seen that there are two unshared electrons in S. Therefore, S has one lone pair.
The relative distribution of electrons in a molecule can be described through the formal charges of each atom. The formal charge describes how many electrons there are in an atom compared to how many electrons it has if it were not bonded. For a molecule to have a stable structure, the formal charges of all the atoms must be at the lowest possible values.
The formula to determine the formal charge is:
Formal Charge = # valence electron for the isolated atom - (# bonds + non-bonding electrons)
For the thionyl compound, the formal charge of S is determined using the following equation and by looking at the Lewis Structure:
Valence Electrons of a Sulfur atom = 6
Number of bonds around Sulfur = 3
Number of non-bonding electrons on Sulfur = 2
Formal Charge of S = 6 - (3+2)
Formal Charge of S = +1
This means that sulfur has less electrons around it in the molecule than it has as an isolated atom.