**Answer: **v₂ = **5962 km**

the spacecraft will crash into the lunar surface at a speed of **5962 km **if nothing is done to correct its orbits

**Explanation:**

Given that;

Lunar surface is in an altitude h = 43.0 km = 43 × 10³ m

we know; Radius of moon R₁ = 1.74 × 10⁶, mass of moon = 7.35 × 10²²

speed of the space craft when it crashes into the lunar surface , v

decreasing speed of the space craft = 23 m/s

Now since the space craft travels in a circular orbit, we use centrifugal expression Fe = mv²/r

but the forces is due to gravitational forces between space craft and lunar surface Fg = GMn/r²

HERE r = Rm + h

we substitute

r = 1.74 × 10⁶ m + 43 × 10³ m

= 1.783 × 10⁶ m

On equating these, we have

G is gravitational force ( 6.673 × 10⁻¹¹ Nm²/kg²)

v²/r = GM/r²

v = √ ( GM/r)

v = √ ( 6.673 × 10⁻¹¹ Nm²/kg² × 7.35 × 10²² / 1.783 × 10⁶ )

v = √ (2750787.9978)

v = 1658.55 m/s

Now since speed is decreasing by 23 m/s

the speed of the space craft into the lunar face is,

v₁ = 1658.55 m/s - 23 m/s

v₁ = 1635.55 m/s

Now applying conversation of energy, we say

1/2mv₂² = 1/2mv₁² + GMem (1/Rm - 1/r)

v₂ = √ [ v₁² + GMe (1/Rm - 1/r)]

v₂ = √ [ 1635.55² + ( 6.673 × 10⁻¹¹ Nm²/kg² × 7.35 × 10²²) (1/ 1.74 × 10⁶ - 1 / 1.783 × 10⁶)]

v₂ = √ (2675023.8025 + 67979.24)

v₂ = √(2743003.046)

v₂ = 1656.2 m/s

now convert

v₂ = 1656.2 × 1km/1000m × 3600s/1hrs

v₂ = **5962 km**

Therefore the spacecraft will crash into the lunar surface at a speed of **5962 km **if nothing is done to correct its orbits